Friday, April 14, 2017

DACHAU-KZ - SATELLITE CAMPS - PART 17 Alphabetical Order M DACHAU-KZ - SATELLITE CAMPS - PART 16 Dachau KZ Satellite Camps Alphabetical Order M Part 17


                                                        


                                         

                            MUNICH - ALLACH - PORCELAIN MANUFACTURER
                             Himmler inspecting Allach porcelain at Dachau on 20 January 1941.

Himmler inspecting Allach porcelain at Dachau on 20 January 1941. Photograph: Image Bank WW2 – NIOD/Amsterdam 

 Porzellanmanufaktur (PMA) was integrated into the empire of the economic enterprises under the direction of the SS-Reichsführung. Within the structure of the economic conglomerate the manufacture belonged to the office W-I (that was 'Steine und Erden' of the Reich) under the direction of the SS Sturnannführer Karl Mummenthey. The founding of the PMA was initiated by Heinrich Himmler as a prestigious object, whose products were intended to "support the education to national socialist people". The figurine program of the manufacture included historical soldiers' figures (among others Fredrich the Great on a horse), and other works of the Hitler Youth, Hitler heads, acts, peasant representations, animal figures, Julleuchter and Julteller, (Jul-tide lights and Jul-tide plates)  and other 'Germanic' ceramics.

It was founded on 3 January 1936 by the three artists Karl Diebisch, Theodor Kärner and Franz Nagy and the SS Obersturmburführer Bruno Galke. Since the 1920s, a small manufacturing company had been located on the site of Lindenstrasse 8 (today Reinhard von Frankstrasse 8) in the Munich district of Allach, on a site adjacent to the Krauss-Maffei armory factory.

                               Himmler presents his birthday gifts to Hitler of Allach figurines in Berlin on the 20 April 1944.

‘The embodiment of the German soul’ … Himmler presents Allach figurines on Hitler’s birthday in 1944. Photograph: Bayerische Staatsbibliothek/Heinrich Hoffman

n the Forfeld of the incorporation of the GmbH into the SS-owned German economic enterprises (DWB) Heinrich Himmler entrusted that the shareholders donated their shares to the SS group leader Oswald Pohl (11.10.1939). In his capacity as head of the HAVW, Pohl combined the company's private and commercial side as of 1942, as the sole shareholder of the PMA. The technical operating was given to art-painter Franz Nagy. The company headquarters were moved to Berlin on 9 October 1940, where it was subject to Himmler's direct control. At the end of 1943, the company moved back to Dachau. Himmler, however, initially refused to use prisoners in the manufactoring process

n contrast to other economic enterprises of the SS, the manufacturing was not primarily directed at the generation of profit.Contracts with Artists had been concluded who designed a. new type of manufacturing markers designated as the mark of the new Porzellan; including SS Runes. The program of the manufacture included both art objects and utensils with a total of 249 porcelain and ceramic models;

                                   A large bivouac bowl and its original box

                                   A large bivouac bowl and its original box Photograph: Alamy
                          
                                     



The Allach maker's mark incorporated stylized SS runes.


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https://p1.liveauctioneers.com/287/99335/50650172_1_x.jpg?version=1485283721                      The Allach maker's mark featuring an “N” for Franz Nagy
                                      Adolf Hitler's Porcelain Alsation sold for US $ 20,000        A telephone used by Adolf Hitler during World War Two has been sold for US $243,000 (£195,744) at a US auction.The identity of the buyer, who bid by phone, has not been revealed. The bidding in Chesapeake City, Maryland, started at $100,000.The red phone, which has the Nazi leader's name engraved on it, was found in his Berlin bunker in 1945.Soviet soldiers gave it to British officer Sir Ralph Rayner as a souvenir shortly after Germany surrendered.
Hitler's phone, which was originally black, was painted red and engraved with his name and a swastika.
                         

    

 After the rapid expansion of the company's facilities in Allach the location was no longer sufficient, on October 1, 1937, part of the production was transferred to the premises of the SS training and exercise  camp at KZ-Dachau in the building of the former powder press plant of 1915 [I  know the building and passed it on my way to work at the Ordnance Supply Depot, sic]. The entire porcelain production was relocated there, whereas in Allach only art ceramics were produced. The space available in the Dachau building which was converted for this purpose was divided in such a way that there was no strict separation between  Civil workers and KZ- prisoners. Professor Ktämer's modesty room was on the first floor, where prisoners were also employed. In the lower floor, where only prisoners worked, the porcelain mill and the construction of the forms were made. In the war years, simple utensils such as ointment containers and canteens were also manufactured in Dachau. The "Julleuchter", which was given away by Himmler at the Julfest (Mid Summer Night), was also made there. Workshops in the area of ​​Dachau, the porcelain factory was undoubtedly the prestige object preferred by Himmler. Amongst others, the singer and the actor Johannes Heesters were taken to the Dachau manufacturing plant in May 1941 to show off, Himmler's pet projects.


 A belling stag designed by Professor Kärner.

                             A belling stag designed by Professor Kärner. Photograph: Alamy




  Prisoners were probably used in the Allach plant as well as on the SS Dachau site. The working detail at Allach consisted, first of all, of about 18 prisoners, who were made up mainly of Germans, and and one Pole, who was a specialist in modeling. As Kapo is recorded, Erwin Zapf from Selb in Franconia. The prisoners were transported daily by truck to Allach. It was only with the existence of the sub-camp Munich-Allach-BMW plants that they were accommodated there. This first involvement with prisoners probably took place as early as in 1940. Due to a decrease in production due to the withdrawal of civilian workers to the front, a search of porcelain workers was conducted in all concentration camps. On July 4, 194, a selection of 13 inmates from Buchenwald were transferred to Dachau were used as porcelain makers and porcelain painters . At the end of 1941, a work force of 67 persons (including 28 workers, 24 clerks, nine apprentices, plus six SS men stood against 60 prisoners, two of them were responsible to collect coal from the Dachau railway yard, Another prisoner by the name of Franz Pirker, was supervising the porcelain kiln. The prisoners were taken daily via the Main Entrance  through the SS-Military Camp to their workplace, and returned in the evening. Only the porcelain kiln workers were used to carry out the continued heating process in the kiln-fire room, who had constantly control temperature and performance of the ovens and thereby were accommodated in the combustion chamber and did not have to return to the camp.
Z
According to the calculations, the number of workers from the KZ during 1943 changed slightly from about 50 in January,to  42 skilled workers and 18 apprentices , and remained at this level during 1944. The numbers fell to about 45 prisoners in February 1945 And on 29 prisoners at the last report of the companies report dated 25 April 1945. After 1945, the porcelain manufacture ceased on the former SS site in Dachau and the US Armed Forces initially took possession of the facilities. They used the building to accommodate  their Labor Service Companies. [These were recruited from former Polish forced laborers, armed and trained as guards, but later De-mobbed as DP's under the auspices of IRO and UNRRA and finally shipped to the States and other countries  sic]
After several years the building decayed and until the demolition in January 1978 only ruins remained.


         The Allach porcelain shop in Warsaw in 1941.

The Allach porcelain shop in Warsaw in 1941. Photograph: Archiwum Cyfrowe/Warsaw

Author 
German Text: Albert Knoll

                                                     

                                               POST SCRUPT
          Allach white porcelain figurine of meddieval costume dancer


2006.468.1 front
Allach white porcelain figurine of a medieval costumed dancer

Click to enlarge
 Glazed white porcelain male figurine in a dancelike pose with the body twisted to the left, with both arms extended outward. The open mouthed face has a goatee, moustache, and pointy nose. The tasseled, pointed hat has a wide brim, flipped up to show the face. A scarf emerges from under the brim, wraps under the chin, and ties behind the neck. The v-neck tunic has a pointed hemline, with 4 tassels at the waist. The sleeves are elbow length and edged with fringe and a small ball and a v-neck undershirt has ¾ sleeves. The legs are crossed in a wide stance with bent knees. The tights have a back seam,with 4 jingle bells around the left calf. Crakow shoes, a slouched boot, are on the feet. It rests on a stone-like porcelain base.
Allach porcelain jester figurine acquired by Adelia W. and Davis O. Morris when they lived in Munich, Germany, as part of the US Army occupation force from 1950-1953. One evening, a man came to their door with the figurine, offering it in trade. He gave it to the Morris's in exchange for a bag of coffee. This is model three of five figures in the Jester series, known as Zaddelrock or Moriskentanzer III, the Astute, produced in 1941. Allach Porcelain and the artist Richard Förster were commissioned by the city of Munich in 1937 to reproduce scaled-down figures of a 1480 Gothic sculpture created by Erasmus Grasser for the Dance House in Munich. The Moriskens were never for public sale, but were made exclusively for the city of Munich as gifts for visiting dignitaries. The city paid Allach 20 Reich Marks for each completed Morisken. Five of the ten figures were put into production.  
The porcelain figurine was donated to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 2006 by Bobbi J. Morris, the daughter of Adelia W. and Davis O. Morris.

 Davis O. Morris attended the Armed Forces Staff College and War College. He was a first lieutenant in the United States Army in Munich where he was stationed for three and a half years, from January 1950 to July 1953. He served under battalion commander Col. James C. Bradford. He and his wife, Adelia, lived at 39 Ravenna Strasse, and later at 7 Wolkenstein Strasse. The couple had a boy and girl while living in Munich and had two more girls after returning to the United States. Morris continued n the Army after the war. He was awarded four bronze stars and served two tours of duty in Vietnam. In 1965, he returned to Germany and was stationed in Nuremburg and Stutttgart. Morris achieved the rank of Brigadier General.

                           1994.46.1 front
Allach porcelain figurine found by a US Army nurse in Dachau concentration camp post-liberation

Click to enlarge

 




Helen Simmons found the figurine at Dachau concentration camp after liberation while working there as a US Army nurse.




Provenance:
The figurine was donated to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 1994 by Herbert Silverman.




  •  Helen Simmons was a U.S. Army Nurse working at Dachau after liberation
  •  White figurine of bearded jester wearing a cap and pointy boots with a sword tied around his waist
  •                                    Sean P. Tully Collection Image, 2007.194.1
Allach porcelain musketeer figurine given to a US Army doctor by recently liberated prisoners of Dachau

Click to enlarge                            
    White porcelain figurine of a costumed musketeer presented to Dr. Joseph A. Witter by a group of recently liberated Jewish prisoners at Dachau concentration camp in appreciation for the aid he provided to sick and dying inmates. The musketeer was deisgned by Robert Forster. The figurines were made with slave labor at the Allach porcelain factory at Dachau. The Allach Porcelain Factory was taken over by the SS in 1936 and was under the direct control of Heinrich Himmler. It was one of the SS's first industrial enterprises. The first factory was at Allach, a subcamp of Dachau concentration camp. A second production site was set up at Dachau to specialize in the production of figurines. Dr. Witter was a surgeon and member of the US Armed Forces 101st Airborne Division, who participated in the liberation of the camp on April 29, 1945. His unit also participated in the liberation of Kaufering concentration camp.



    The Allach porcelain figurine was donated to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 2007 by Sean P. Tully, the grandson of Joseph A. Witter.






    MUNICH - ALLACH - ROTHSCHWAIGE

    Rothschwaige belonged to the Allacher sub camp complex. The commander of the sub-camp Munich-AAllach (BMW) ,was Obersturmführer Josef Jarolin, under his command and subordinate to him were the sub-camps Karlsfeld OT and Rothschwaige. The sub-camp Rothschwaige can no longer be localized. Since July 1942, however, in Dachau, Kufsteinstrasse 12, had been a transit camp for Russian civilian workers, in which about 2,000 people that were accommodated there, who had been used as 'forced laborers' to work in Dachau firms like the paper factory Schuster. Possibly the later KZ-sub camp was built on a part of this transit camp.

    The International Search Service Arolsen (ITS) shows the first mentioning of the sub-camp Rothschwaige on July 19, 1944. A report of the 17th August 1944 indicates an occupancy of 512 Jewish prisoners and 19 functionaries for the period from 11 to 31 July 1944.
    From the reports of the survivors, it can be concluded that Rothschwaige was, first and foremost, a temporary transit camp for Jewish prisoners on their way from Auschwitz to the Allacher Camp Complex. The duration of their stay was a maximum of four to six weeks. All prisoners marched from the Dachau train station on foot to Rothschwaige, they were accommodated there into existing barracks. There are no Rothschwaige prisoners appearing on the handed-in strength reports of the Dachauer sub-commanders and sub-camps dated the 29th November 1944, 3rd April and 26th April 1945.

    Presumably, in addition to the Jewish prisoners, who came into the Allacher sub-camp complexes through Rothschwaige, further detainees were lodged in Rothschwaige, who were deported to other concentration camps after a few days. This probably included a transport of 1,045 Hungarian Jewish women and 'gypsies' as at the  20th November 1944 - who were listed as Karlsfeld prisoners and then transported on the 1st December 1944 to Ravensbrück.
    In contrast to Auschwitz, the detainees found their prison term in Rothschwaige as a relative improvement.'We got hot food, a blanket and a bunk for sleeping'. Abuses and killings of prisoners are not handed down. Unknown is, whether and in what form the Rothschwaiger prisoners were drawn into the OT employment. The assignment of the prisoners to OT as an employer in the ITS directory is not comprehensible according to the reports and statements of survivors.

    There is different information about the closure of the sub-camp. One survivor dated the re-location of the camp to Allach as the 31st July 1944. The international search service shows the last indication as the 31st March 1945. In the camp memorial Dachau, 30 Jews are named, who were liberated here. It would be conceivable that in the course of the overcrowding of the sub camps Allach BMW and Karlsfeld OT in the last few weeks prisoners were also brought to Rothschwaige.
    On the site of the former transit camp, there are still two dilapidated barracks. A part of the terrain is now used as an accommodation for  temporarily  settlers.
    Authors German Text: Albert Knoll/Sabine Schalm

    MUNICH - FREIMANN - BARTOLITH WERKE

    The Bartolith Factory was founded in Munich in April 1942 by Christian Seidl to produce patented timber boards made of wood and cement. The manager was Christian Seidl, who had been supported by his son Norbert since 1943. While Christian Seidl was not a member of the NSDAP or any other national-socialist group, Norbert Seidl joined the NSDAP (Nazi Party) in 1940 and became district leader (Ortsleiter). The first large order was made for the Bartolithwerke with 10,000 building boards for the building of barracks for the SS Construction Management Süd at Dachau in 1942. At that time the company Barftolith did not have sufficient capacity with only six employees in Munich-Freimann to carry out this order. Therefore, Christian Seidl submitted a request  the detention of prisoners from the KZ-Dachau. Before the prisoners were taken to the Mühldorfstrasse, however, a sleeping and housing barracks, sanitary facilities and two watchtowers had to be erected and the entire camp had to be secured with barbed wire.


    On the 28th of August 1942 Hauptscharführer Friedrich Müller came to Freimann as a commanding officer with an advance party of 30 prisoners and his guards. These detainees were first used to build the production facility. On the 12th of November, 1942, a permanent working commando of 30 prisoners and the Kapo Karl Kirschmeier was assigned to Munich-Freimann. In the following week, the number of prisoners increased to about 70 to 80, among them were mainly Germans, Yugoslavs, Czechs and Poles.

    In the winter of 1942/43 the production began in the Bartolith Works. Divided into 'production groups', the prisoners had to meet a certain daily target of building boards from six in the morning to 1800 hours in the evening. The only interruption, was a midday lunch break. The food for the prisoners was brought from the KZ-Dachau on a weekly basis by truck to Freimann. The food ration was inadequate, as the management took parts of it for their civilian workers. The supply degenerated so far that prisoners dug frozen potatoes from a nearby potato field in the winter. After eating these potatoes, some fell ill and were transferred back to Dachau.


    The prisoner, Josef Leitmeier, had become a valuable worker as a construction supervisor for the Bartolith works, and for this reason Norbert Seidl tried to negotiate  his release from the KZ-Dachau.
    Josef Leitmeier was given leave [ Leave 'Urlaub' only ,he was never free and remained a prisoner. sic] on the 30th of October, 1943, under the condition of service only at the Bartholith Works.  During this time, Leitmeier took over the construction of a second Bartholith plant in Erding. [He probably was an Engineer by profession,sic]. No KZ-prisoners were employed for these construction works, but prisoners of war and foreign civilian workers. Both SS-Guard Details and Norbert Seidl mistreated prisoners, if they worked too slowly in their opinion. Commander Müller urged the prisoners to work at an ever-higher rate because he received a monthly premium from the management, depending on the production figures achieved. Deaths in this sub-camp did not occur, however, how many prisoners died from consequences of malnutrition and hard physical work remains unclear.


    According to Norbert Seidl, the prisoner's commando was canceled after completion of the order for SS construction management in July 1943. Instead, jailed inmates from Stadelheim prison were used in the Bartolith factories.
    Father and son, were not held accountable during the De-nazification proceedings in 1948 because of no deaths of prisoners while managing the company Bartolith. In 1967, however, Johann Leitmeier, [whom he wanted released from Dachau.sic] accused and charged Norbert Seidl, at the Munich public prosecutor's office for ill-treatment of prisoners in sub-camp Bartolith. After further investigation, the procedure was terminated in 1970, because no killings were committed by him.
    The Central office of the Landesjustizverwaltung led after 1973 another Re-investigation, but in 1974 joined the judicial decision of the regional court Munich and ceased further proceedings. Commander August Müller was sentenced to ten years' imprisonment in the context of the Dachauer trials.

    Author Herman Text: Sabine Schalm








    Sources/Acknowledgements:                                                   
    Wikipedia
    Scrapbook Pages Blog
    Der Ort des Terrors, Pages 430 -
    Vol 2 C.H.Beck, München 2005


    Translated from German by:
     Stolpmann,Herbert Karl Walter
     von Waldeck
    Design:d-stolpmann@gmail.com     Continued under Part 18
                                          
                                                              

    Monday, February 27, 2017

    DACHAU-KZ - SATELLITE CAMPS - PART 16 Alphabetical Order M DACHAU-KZ - SATELLITE CAMPS - PART 16 Dachau KZ Satellite Camps Alphabetical Order M Part 16

                                                       

                                                        

                                                                          

                                  

     MUNICH- ALLACH - BMW
    As early as 1936, the Reich Ministry of Aviation demanded that the BMW Group of companies set up a second plant for the  assembly and repair of aircraft engines in addition to the production facilities in Munich-Mosach, the reason being, to decentralize the aircraft engine production in the event of a war. The 'Schattenwerk'(Shadow Factory) for BMW should be erected from 1936 to 1939 in Munich-Allach, and here the large-series production of the 80I engine should commence. The factory was located in the Dachauer Strasse. The construction project, however, was delayed several times, so that the production in Allach only began in May 1942. Monthly, 100 BMW engines should be produced here. In March 1943 the Munich factory facilities were badly damaged during an air attack and the production of the 80I engine was completely moved to Allach. In 1944, the Allach factory achieved a maximum production rate of 2,000 engines per month, an enormous output quota.
     
     

     

                               https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/83/BMW_801D_Duxford.jpg/450px-BMW_801D_Duxford.jpg    

                                      BMW 801D on display at he War Museum Duxford - UK

       In 1939/1940, the workforce in Allach consisted of about 1,000 employees. At the end of 1941, the first civilian forced laborers were deployed. In the following years, the Bayrische Motorenwerke (BMW) became the most important private employer in Munich with the highest number of civilian forced laborers. By the end of the war, the total workforce in Munich rose to over 17,000. The highest proportion of these were foreign forced laborers, KZ-prisoners and prisoners of war. All around the Allach Factory, barrack tyoe towns (Barackenstädte) had been created for thousands of workers. Also in other places were Dachauer KZ-prisoners at different workplaces engaged for BMW. These inmates came from far flung places including the sub-camps of Blaichach, Kaufbeuren, Stephanskirchen and Trostberg, as well as a working commando in the Süddeutsche Rohrmattenfabrik (Bamboo-Mat-Factory) in Dachau's Rosswachenstrasse, where a part of BMW production from Allach was outsourced 
     
    ‘Foreign workers at BMW in Allach’
    c. 1943
    All the foreigners in aircraft engine production had to be visibly identifiable as such. The Soviet prisoners of war had the “SU” symbol on their jackets. Concentration camp inmates could be recognized by their striped uniforms. These photographs were most likely propaganda photos. Munich-Allach, ca. 1943. Source: BMW Group Archiv.
            

    '

      In order to protect the plant Allach from allied air raids, the Reichsluftfartministerium (Reich's-Air-Ministeriun) approved on 7 September 1943 the construction of a bunker in Allach. Under the construction supervision of the organization Todt began the shift of the underground production of the Allacher manufacture and thus the employment of KZ-prisoners at the bunker construction site.

    The first prisoners were already deployed in Allach in 1942, and they returned to the Stammlager Dachau in the evening. In March 1943, the prisoners had to erect the sub-camp in the immediate vicinity of the plant. In part, these prisoners were accommodated in existing horse stables. The campground which comprised of a total of 30 buildings was surrounded by an electrically charged fence and watchtowers. There was a utility-building with kitchen and laundry facilities, an administration building, accommodation barracks and an assembly ground. In addition, SS accommodation and a camp chancery were built. In the next two years, one of the largest sub-camp complexes of the KZ-Dachau was built, which apart from the sub-camp Allach BMW,  the camps Karlsfeld OT and Rotschweigen were subordinated to Dachau.



    The sub-camp BMW Allach was a pure men's camp. It was initially planned for 3,000 to 4,000 prisoners. In July 1944 several barracks were separated and the sub-camp Karlsfeld OT was set up for Jewish prisoners. On 29 November 1944 there were 4,743 prisoners in Allach. However, the demand for labor at BMW rose further, and the occupancy up to February 1945 had increased to about 10,000 prisoners. On 26 April 1945 8,970 prisoners were still registered, including Russians, French, Poles, Yugoslavs, Italians and Germans. At the same time, the sub-camp complex Allach changed in April 1945 to a transit camp for evacuated detainees from other Dachauer sub-camps such as Burgau and Türkheim or from the more northern concentration camps, which could not take up the then overcrowded Stammlager Dachau. At times up to 22,000 prisoners were in the sub-camp Allach BMW.


                               
     


    Inmates waving a home-made American flag greet U.S. Seventh Army troops upon their arrival at the Allach concentration camp on April 30, 1945. Photo credit: National Archives, courtesy of USHMM Photo Archives

    The first KZ-prisoners were mainly trained with the view to be proficient in the construction of the sub-camp and the skills required in the factory as metal cutters, turners and locksmiths. About half of the detainees worked in the factory, the rest were working on the construction sites for the plant and from September 1943 on the bunker projects. One of the heavy assignments was named after the executing construction company 'Commando Dylerhoff'. Here, the prisoners were driven to work by beatings, because [in some cases,sic] they fell into the mortar containers which was thereby  spilled [probably deliberately,sic]. There was also the fact that the breaking of a masonry drill on the construction site was punished as a sabotage with the threat of the death penalty. For the production, the prisoners worked in two 11.5 hours shifts and were supervised by civilian masters (Meister, a person with a degree in his field of expertise). Many of the civilians were humanly inclined towards the prisoners; others did not hesitate to make reports when they produced too many reject parts or virtual scrap material, this resulted, that the prisoners were subjected to severe penalties for such offenses at the workplace and later on in the camp.
    [There were several "executions" due to sabotage, escape attempts or theft of food. The Central Office of the Landesjustizverwaltungen lists 50 murders.sic]
     





    The arrival and the living conditions In the camp Allach-BMW the former prisoner Karl A. Gross described: 'We marched through the gates  9'hats off!') What we saw in front of us was a desolate impression To see the huts, which, on closer inspection, turned out to be horse stables, without windows, but with gaps like openings underneath the roof, this was shuddering to us, Dachau was a concentration camp, a clean city against this collection of stables' .(This part of the sub-camp had initially 22 wooden barracks, which had been converted from former horse stables. On average, 3,500 to 5,000 prisoners were in the camp. The barracks were not equipped with locks, the prisoners were sleeping on straw bags as mattresses in three-tier  beds. I lived in one of these barracks after the war, while employed by the US Army and can not criticize the living condition nor the hygienic facilities of this camp. HKS,sic.) 

    The deputy kitchen Kapo Erich Kunter described the situation in the prisoner's kitchen in 1947. A large part of the food had already been taken by members of the SS. The food conditions in the sub-camp Allach deteriorated above all towards the end of the war.                                                       https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/eb/Wzwz_munich_kz_allach_4.JPG/330px-Wzwz_munich_kz_allach_4.JPG                                           
                          Last existing buildings of th camp Allach, Granatstraße 8 and 10.


    Camp commander of the sub-camp cpmlexes Allach and at the same time camp leader of the camp Allach-BMW was SS Obersturmführer Josef Jarolin, his deputy SS-Hauptscharführer Sebastian Eberl. A surviving prisoner estimated the overall strength of the SS men in Allach to be on an average of 800. Among them were SS men from Hungary, Romania and Croatia. Above all, camp leader Jarolin was in the camp the most feared because of his cruelty. In Allach, for example, there were beatings as punishment, severe arrest periods and during wintry conditions, in which the prisoners were poured over with water. More than 40 prisoners were hanged. The Crematoria-Capo of the KZ-Dachau Emil Nahl reminded us that during the Christmas season of 1943 he was commissioned to prepare six Russian prisoners at Allach to hang. In the summer of 1943 further prisoners were hanged in Allach; they had been picked up in an escape attempt. In other cases alleged sabotage was the reason for an execution by the rope.


    View YouTube: Landsberg's hangings, a total of 288 were hanged by American Occupation Forces, sic.


    A number of Functionary Prisoners from camp Allach-BMW are well-known by name, such as the assistant clerk at Stefan Lason, the Revier Kapo (Hospital) Michael Rauch. Kapo of the clothing supp;y room and later block leader of B 3 Gustav Adolf Carl. The Red Spain fighter , Ferdinand Westerbarkey, who had been a warehouse clerk and the German Karl Wagner who was since April 1943 Camp Elder. When Wagner refused to beat a Soviet prisoner on the orders of the commandant Jarolins in July, he was dismissed and transferred after five days to the bunker at the  arrest facilities in Dachau. Incarcerated  for six weeks in the bunker, he was released after the customary beatings were carried out. The French doctor, Henri Laffitte, was especially popular among the prisoners.
    Information as to the total number of deaths from the sub-camp Allach-BMW are still very inaccurate to this day. This resulted not least from the fact that the dead were transferred to Dachau and included in the death statistics there. This makes the numbers for the sub-camp distorted and much too low. In 1947/48, corpses were exhumed on the site of the former camp.

    On 26 April 1945, 9,000 prisoners left the Stammlager Dachau. The evacuation prisoners marched also through the sub-camp Allach. On the same day all German and Russian prisoners from Allach were put on the same march. They followed the route along the Würm River via Pasing and Gauting to Leutstetten. On the 27th of April, they came upon a marching column from the KZ-Dachau. Until the liberation in Waakirchen on 1 May 1945, the prisoners marched through Starnberg, Wollfahrthausen and towards Bad Tölz.
     In  camp Allach, there were still about 10,000 prisoners left, who were liberated by American troops on the 30th of April 1945.
    After the liberation, survivors founded the Comité de Liberatiuon d'Francais d 'Allach, which essentially published publications about this camp.
     

                     https://furtherglory.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/deathmarch.gif?w=713&h=498
     

    According to former prisoners, Jarolin had often struck prisoners in the administration building of the Dachau concentration camp to unconsciousness. According to the prisoners, he was also present on July 1, 1942, when twelve prisoners were punished while tied to stakes. Jarolin had ordered the hanging of the prisoners as their shoes touched the ground(Which in fact is a strangulation method of hanging,sic) In a handwritten affidavit, which had arisen before the beginning of the process, Jarolin stated that between May and December 1941 150 prisoners had been imprisoned and beaten with an ox-whip. Between July and September he had been involved in the execution of about 700 Soviet prisoners of war; He had given commands to the execution commando and shot prisoners in 30 to 40 cases. In April 1942, Jarolin was reportedly involved in the selection of prisoners, at which the concentration camp doctor Sigmund Rascher conducted human experiments in Dachau. After that, he had also been present at Rascher's experiments. Jarolin also stated that he had been present in Dachau from December 1942, and also after his transfered to Allach, oversaw there the execution of the beating and the hanging.

     Jarolin was condemned on 13 December 1945 as well as 35 other defendants during the Dachau main process by an American military court because of war crimes sentenced to death by the rope. In the case of jury trials, jailing and kicking of detainees, the killing of three detainees were considered as individual crimes by Jarolin.  The verdict was confirmed by the Commander-in-Chief of the American Armed Forces in Europe on April 5, 1946, who had a corresponding recommendation by a "Review Board" of the army.  Jarolin was hanged on May 28, 1946, in Landsberg's War Crimes Camp.

    In 1976, the prosecutor's office in Munich tried his deputy Sebatian Eberl for killing offenses in the Allach-BMW camp. The procedure was discontinued in 1980 due to the poor state of health of Sebastian Eberl.
    Emil Mahl, who was involved in Allach's hangs, was condemned to death in the first Dachauer trial. After several court document checks, he was pardoned to ten years of imprisonment.

     After the war, the wooden barracks of the camp Allach-BMW were demolished except for one. In other parts of the camp, refugees and prisoners of war were living. Between 1950 and 1952 the settlement of Ludwigsfeld was built there for Displaced Persons. On 2 May 1997, a memorial plaque dedicated to the victims of the sub-camps Allach and Karlsfeld was erected at the building of the former cafeteria in the Granatstrasse on Initiative of the Cpmite International de Dachau. Together with the MTU Group, the successor company of the Allach plant, and the BMW Group started a few years ago to research the role they played under the rule of National Socialism. Both companies allow historians to access their archives.

    Literatur
    Amicale des Anciens de Dachau. Allach Kommando de Dachau, Paris 1982 Christian Taege, Allach-Ein Außenlager ders Konzentrationslagers Dachau, in: Landeshauptstadt München (Hersg.), Verdunkeltes Nünchen. Geschichtswettbewerb1985/86, München 1987, S.98-107
    .Zdenek Zofka, Allach-Slaven für BMW. Zur Geschichte eines Außenlagers des KZ Dachau,in: achauer Hefte 2 (1986) S.68-78

    Authors German Text: Albert Knoll/Sabine Schalm


                                                  München - BMW-Hauptverwaltung.jpg
                                                   BMW headquarters in Munich
     APPENDIX
     luxury automobile maker BMW is celebrating its centennial. The small engine manufacturer rose to a global player with the Nazi era playing a key role in the company's development.
    German luxury automobile maker BMW is celebrating its centennial. The small engine manufacturer rose to a global player with the Nazi era playing a key role in the company's development.
    BMW - three letters that are instantly recognizable anywhere in the world.The BMW Group is one of the world's most successful automobile manufacturers, a leader among global premium brands. No doubt, the firm founded on March 7, 1916 is a huge success story. For that matter, it's a typical German success story, that is a mix of gloomy chapters and great milestones.
       A lot can be learned about BMW when looking at the annual company books, which - among other accomplishments - list the first commercially successful motorcycle, the BMW R 32, but also mention the fact that beginning in December 1939, prisoners of war, detainees, forced laborers and concentration camp prisoners were put to work making airplane engines at various production sites.Today, BMW no longer keeps under wraps the fact that the firm resorted to forced labor during the Nazi era. "Every tour through our museum and the production site in Munich's Allach district mentions that," says BWM spokesman Stefan Behr. But using forced labor wasn't limited to BMW, he adds: "It was a social phenomenon found all over the entire country." Supplying forced labor
    Quite a few German companies in fact used forced labor during the Nazi era, including the country's automobile manufacturers: rival Daimler employed about 40,000 forced laborers, Volkswagen had about 12,000, and at BMW, two out of three of the firm's 56,000 employees were forced laborers and concentration camp prisoners at the time. As the war dragged on, they were "increasingly discriminated against and systematically exploited," according to a 2008 doctoral thesis in the company's archives
       CultureGerman luxury automobile maker BMW is celebrating its centennial. The small engine manufacturer rose to a global player with the Nazi era playing a key role in the company's development.

                                                      BMW.svg
    BMW - three letters that are instantly recognizable anywhere in the world.The BMW Group is one of the world's most successful automobile manufacturers, a leader among global premium brands. No doubt, the firm founded on March 7, 1916 is a huge success story. For that matter, it's a typical German success story, that is a mix of gloomy chapters and great milestones.
       A lot can be learned about BMW when looking at the annual company books, which - among other accomplishments - list the first commercially successful motorcycle, the BMW R 32, but also mention the fact that beginning in December 1939, prisoners of war, detainees, forced laborers and concentration camp prisoners were put to work making airplane engines at various production sites.Today, BMW no longer keeps under wraps the fact that the firm resorted to forced labor during the Nazi era. "Every tour through our museum and the production site in Munich's Allach district mentions that," says BWM spokesman Stefan Behr. But using forced labor wasn't limited to BMW, he adds: "It was a social phenomenon found all over the entire country."

    Supplying forced labor

    Quite a few German companies in fact used forced labor during the Nazi era, including the country's automobile manufacturers: rival Daimler employed about 40,000 forced laborers, Volkswagen had about 12,000, and at BMW, two out of three of the firm's 56,000 employees were forced laborers and concentration camp prisoners at the time. As the war dragged on, they were "increasingly discriminated against and systematically exploited," according to a 2008 doctoral thesis in the company's archives.Other industries also massively relied on forced labor: Krupp, Bosch, Siemens and the IG Farben chemical industry conglomerate - known today as BASF, Bayer and Hoechst. IG Farben - the firm that produced the Zyklon B cyanide gas that killed millions of Jews at the death camps - [still the German version of concentration camps was: 'Arbeitslager und Vernichtungslager (Working CAmps and Extermination Camps), Forced Labour is a misnomer and were recruited in occopied countries by the German Labor Exchange and voluntary choose to work in Germany sic] actually even ran a factory within the Auschwitz concentration and death camp complex.

     Doing business with the Nazis
    Even today, many firms argue that, with their skilled workers sent off to war, they were required to fulfill their production quotas using whatever labor they could find. Businesses were told to resort to using forced labor, Behr says.The Nazi regime banned the production of automobiles and severely limited the production of motorcycles, BMW spokesman Behr says. This is not quite correct: 
    The BMW R75 is a World War II-era motorcycle and sidecar combination was produced for the German Armed Foorces,In the 1930s BMW were producing a number of popular and highly effective motorcycles. In 1938 development of the R75 actually started in response to a request from the German Army. sic].
    .Instead, BMW was forced to produce great numbers of airplane engines - a branch the company had actually moved away from - while relying on concentration camp prisoners. While this is no justification, Behr says that today, "it's difficult to understand the extent of entrepreneurial liberties back then based on nothing but a few documents." However, he concedes, BMW also made money in the deal.
       German historian Lutz Budrass says that many feel the IG Farben factory at Auschwitz-Monowitz was the absolute low point in industrial developments during WWII. But BMW and airplane manufacturer Heinkel, to name just a few, weren't much better, he explains: "The difference is that their factories were in Germany and not in occupied Poland."Beginning in February 1943, BMW and Heinkel became the first companies to profit from slave labor from the subcamps established alongside larger concentration camps.

    Post-war fresh start
    After 1945, the allies investigated the role of German industry during the war, but according to Budrass, who is also an expert on the aviation industry during the Nazi era, "that didn't include today's leading German enterprises."
    Major captains of industry like Bohlen and Halbach's Alfried Krupp, Friedrich Flick and various IG Farben managers stood accused at the Nuremberg Trials - but comperatively smaller players like Daimler, VW, Lufthansa and BMW and their managers did not. However, there were still some stiff consequences:
    "After WWII, production was forbidden; some of our factories were disassembled and machines given away as official war reparations," BMW spokesman Behr says. "BMW still exists today despite this era - not because of it."
    But there was also growth in unexpected places. Enterprises like BMW profited from their accumulated technical expertise, historian Budrass argues. US forces in Bavaria found that only BMW had the necessary expertise to service its huge motor pool. Budrass says that therefore another question arises: "How much did developments in the 1950s depend on the Nazi era?" he wonders.
     [None whatsoever, as the Karlsfeld factory producing the R75 motorcycles with sidecars,was given as war price to Jugoslaviasic] 

                                                      
                                  Waffen-SS on the Eastern Front on BMW Notorcycles, Model R75

    The plot thickened by 1959, when Herbert Quandt saved BMW from a takeover by rival Daimler and helped it grow further out of the ruins of World War II. But his father Günther Quandt, a well-known German industrialist, had kept close personal and business ties to the Nazi regime. His ex-wife Magda married Nazi Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels while Günther Quandt himself made a fortune arming the German Wehrmacht, manufacturing weapons and batteries while acquiring assets from Jewish company owners.Quandt and BMW may have been separate firms during the war, but in 1959 funds amassed in the Nazi era by his father allowed Herbert Quandt to save BMW.
     [The recovery of German Industrial Enterprises was only possible with the chaange of the monetary system by intruducing the DM (Deutsche Mark) in June 1948 by an American Pfc,by the name of Tannenberg, yes you guessed it, he was a German Jew,
    The existung Reichsmark had no value,sic]
    Better late than never
    Today, the company archives are open to researchers and journalists, which has resulted in two academic dissertations being written about BMW's dealings between 1933 and 1945. Other German brands like Volkswagen, Deutsche Bank, Krupp, Bertelsmann, Bosch, Dr Oetker and the Quandt family have also investigated this dark period in their histories.
       "Many firms have realized that understanding one's past has a positive effect," Budrass says. "It's a sign of honesty," he says. However, it is also a source of great marketing: in publications celebrating its centennial, BMW points to its role as founding member of Remembrance, Responsibility and Future (EVZ), a foundation established for the compensation of former forced laborers. It fails to mention, however, just how involved the company was in using forced labor.
    On September 30, 1939, BMW purchased an aircraft engine manufacturer based in the Spandau district of Berlin called Brandenburgische Motorenwerke. Today, the company produces motorcycles for worldwide distribution there. However, there is no mention anywhere that the premises subsequently housed the largest camp for forced and foreign laborers in the region. [Not on the premises, but at Munich -Allach sub-camp as puvlished above, herbstolpmann@gmail.com,sic]

    Revised March 2nd 2017







    Sources/Acknowledgements:                                                   
    Wikipedia
    Scrapbook Pages Blog
    Der Ort des Terrors, Pages 425-430
    Vol 2 C.H.Beck, München 2005

    Translated from German by:
     Stolpmann,Herbert Karl Walter
     von Waldeck
    Design:d-stolpmann@gmail.com     Continued under Part 17