Thursday, February 2, 2017

Dachau KZ - Satelliite Camps Part 14 Alphabetical Order M


                                 DACHAU KZ - SATELLITE CAMPS - PART 14

                                                   Alphabetical Order



The textile factory Lodenfrey had been in Osterholzstrasse 9-10 since 1842.
In 1928 Georg Frey joined the management in the field of manufacturing. He had been a party member and of the  SS since 1933: (Civil SS), but in 1937 he left the SS for religious reasons. In 1933, the company produced uniforms for some units of the 'Stahlhelm', and in the years to come delivered coats for the SA, Hitlerjugend, and Reichsarbeitsdienst. Between 1933 and 1940, the family business was able to increase the number of employees and profits, so that in 1934 and after 1942 the factory building was extended. Since the second year of the war economic downturns have been marked for the firm, especially in 1944/45 by two total destruction of the sales outlets in the Maffeistrasse 7 and Kaufingerstrasse 23

                                                     Pre-war Sales Outlet of LodenFrey

The first data on the existence of a detainee commando at the textile factory dated August 1942. This was a labor  commando, which was brought daily from the KZ-Dachau to Munich. How many prisoners were in this working detail, and what work they had to perform, is not clear. In May 1944, an additional commando of 30 detainees came to Loden-Frey to clean up the premises after a bombing raid. These prisoners were driven by truck, with six SS guards to Munich and returned in the evening to the KZ-Dachau. It was not until June 13, 1944, that a sub-camp at the company, at the Osterwaldstrasse, was established. The prisoners came from Poland, Russia, Yugoslavia, but also from France and Italy. Wilhelm Reissmann was the only German who acted as Kapo.

The 30 prisoners were accommodated in a garage on the factory premises,  where they had beds and bed linen provided for them. The hygienic conditions were good, as there was a shower which could be used daily, on top of that the prisoners were allowed to bathe at the weekend in the swimming pool of the company. There was no fencing in or around their accommodation. They also received their meals from the company kitchen but they sat aside from the civilian employees. In 1944/45 the garage was damaged during another air raid and the prisoners were temporarily quartered in the basement of the factory. There was a radio available to them, with which the prisoners could hear foreign broadcasts. In 1944, the manager of the factory organized for the prisoners a small celebration with festivities in which everyone was given a shirt, fruit and cigarettes. The former prisoner Philipp Busch recalled that Georg Frey often procured additional food and cigarettes for the detainees. The prisoners were given so much bread that they could give some of it to the French POW in the factory.

Six SS guards, among them were at least three Volksdeutsche (Ethnic Germans), were accommodated in the same garage as the prisoners, separated only by a wall from them. They supervised the prisoners at their work assignment, not necessarily their performance, which was done by civilians.
There were no reports of killings or ill-treatment from the sub-camp. About one week before the arrival of the American troops in Munich, the sub-camp was ordered to be dissolved and the prisoners transferred back to the Stammlager Dachau. According to reports of survivors, Georg Frey refused to provide  a company truck to take them there. Instead, he fitted out all prisoners with civilian clothes, helped nine detainees to escape, and hid the rest in his house  or in the homes of company employees. After the SS guard team had left, 19 prisoners experienced their liberation in the factory of Loden-Frey.

Georg Frey resigned from the management in August 1945. In a de-nazifiction trial, he was classified as a 'Nitläufer' (fellow- party runner) in 1948 he had to pay an 'atonement'  sum of DM 2,000 and the costs of thecourt  proceedings of DM 75,000. [The system was introduced only in the American Zone, the OMGB (Office of the Military Government of Bavaria) if a person who had  been a member of the NSDAP, (the Nazi Party), (Sünde-Geld ''atonement-money'  was applied, this by no means changed the political opinion of the individual concerned. Those that were categorized as former Naziis [by that, according to the Occupatio Forces had committed a 'Sin' thus Sühne-Geld and could not pay were detained in concentration type camps with a maximum of four years. This whole scheme was stopped with the cold war heating up 1951 in Korea  sic]
Loden-Frey is still a respected Munich textile company. The former factory site in the Osterwaldstrasse is now a commercial area, which is rented out and managed by Loden-Freypark GmbH. On the place, where the prisoners were accommodated in the Garage, there is now a Car-Park Building. Behind it is still the swimming-poolstill  mentioned in prisoners' reports. In 2003 a statement was commissionedand published by the company  on their role during the time of the National Socialism.
There is no memorial tablet on the site. [Georg Frey died on the 28. August 1976, sic]

Author German Text: Sabine Schalm


The shoe house Eduard Meier in Munich, today Residenzstrasse 22, promotes, formerly promoted as a Royal Bavarian Courtier and now the oldest shoe house in Germany. According to the International Search Service, between November 1944 and February 1945 the sub-camp Schuhhaus Meier used up to twelve prisoners. KZ-files, which could give further information about this work commando, are not available.

As far back in the 1930s as well as in the 1940s, a sales outlet and repair shop, maintained by craftsmen
were located in the middle of the NS Party district at Karlstrasse 3-5. During  an air attack on the 17th December 1944 the premises were completely destroyed, so that their own production had to be stopped. At this time, the shoe repair facilities were supposed to have been sent to the KZ-Dachau and taken over by inmates. Civilian employees at the Schuhhaus Meier were regularly taken by truck to Dachau to deliver the shoes needing repair and pick up the finished footwear. In addition, a shoe polisher/grinder was delivered from the Munich shop  to Dachau.

Investigations by the Central Office of the State Justice Administration in 1973 were unable to contact any survivors of this sub-camp. The proceedings were terminated in 1974 without results. Today's company management is not aware that prisoners ever worked in their factory in th Karlstrasse, After the destruction the building the family Meier did not rebuild on the estate in the Karlstrasse, but sold the the building it had stood, after the war to the Oberfinanzdirektion Munich. Today, a new building is used mainly for commercial purposes.

Author German Text: Sabine Schalm


Since 1936, the administrative offices of the SS-Oberabschnitt Süd( Upper Section South) were located at Maria-Theresia-Strasse 17, a parallel street to Möhlstrasse. Prisoners of the KZ-Dachau were assigned to the Upper Section South, but the sub-camp was in the Möhlstrasse. For this reason, various proscriptions appeared in the list of transitions and changes made by Dachau concerning the sub-camp: Möhlstrasse and SS Obedrabschnitt Süd. Both are however one and the same sub-camp.

The first mention of this sub-camp is a report on the death of two prisoners by an air attack on 9 June 1944. It is clear from this. that a commando of Dachau prisoners had already been deployed before this day. An accurate dating is not possible. There is also little concrete information on the number indicated in their actual listed strength. The international search service show ten prisoners, a report of the KZ-Dachau of 3 April 1945 lists eight prisoners and a list from the clothing supply room of Dachau indicates only four prisoners for the sub-camp SS-Upper Section South.
The prisoners, as far as they are known from the lists of transcripts, came from the German Reich and other countries. According to the International Search Service, the prisoners were engaged in building repairs. The construction of an air-raid shelter is mentioned elsewhere.

The sub-camp was last mentioned in the form of the return of two Yugoslavian prisoners held in "custody" back to the Stammlager Dachau on 25 April 1945.

In 1973/74, the Central Office of the District Justice Department (Landesjustizverwaltun)g conducted an investigation into this sub-camp. The procedure was discontinued due to lack of new evidence.
In the buildings at Maria-Theresienstrasse 17, offices of the Bavarian ministries of education for cultus and science, as well as for science, research and art, are now available and taught there.

Author German Text: Sabine Schalm



Since 1928, Franz Nützl has been managing the Nursery and running a wholesale trade in vegetables and fruit at Ludwigsfeld 9 in Munich. As an SA member, he was involved in 1933 until 1938 at Beer-Hall battles in Munich and at the fire of the Munich synagogue. In 1937, he joined the NSDAP and fostered his close contacts with the SS and SD figures in High Command. He was also active for the SD and wrote monthly reports.

Until 1933, the nursery company was on the verge of bankruptcy. With the takeover of power by the  National Socialists, Franz Nützl was able to open up new business partners and became one of the most influential wholesale traders in Munich. Until the end of the war, he was the only fruit and vegetable supplier for Munich and the surrounding SS garrisons, their hospitals, police schools as well as recreational centers of the police, the SS and the SD. He provided the requirements of the canteens in the Contraction Camp Dachau, KZ-Mauthausen, Auschwitz, Flossenbürg, Sachsenhausen, Buchenwwald and Ravensbrück.
Unbelievable the KZ-Dachau supplied Franz not only with goods, but he also profited from their workshops. For example, he had his own shoe-making work for himself and his family done there, and he also received materials for the expansion of his company from Dachau.

In 1940, Franz Nützl benefited from his close ties with the Party(Nazi-Party) and the SS decision-makers by assigning prisoners of war as aid workers for his gardening operation. The first KZ-prisoners worked for him in 1941 at Ludwigsfeld. SS Unterscharführer Bruno Jakusch came in September 1942 as commanding officer with about 24 prisoners and four to five guards to Nützl's company. After an air attack on September 22, 1944, large parts of the nursery were destroyed. Useful and convenient, Franz Nützl also worked as an expert on war damages, was compensated in a very short time and was given an additional 70 prisoners for clearing work on his company premises.

According to a former prisoner, who worked in the writing room (Schreibstubed) of the KZ-Dachau, this Commando was very unpopular until 1943. No one wanted to be assigned to this command. The work there  was exhausting, and commandant Jakusch and Kapo Rohmer were generally known as brutal individuals. Franz Nützl and his wife did not only allow the mistreatment to happen, but also encouraged the guard teams to drive the detainees to higher performances. If an inmate did not work quickly and well enough, Franz Nützl reported back to Böttcher in Dachau, and then ordered the prisoner to be returned to the Stammlager (Main Camp).

In December, 1944, commandant Jakusch was removed from the gardening enterprise Nützl after an epileptic attack. Successor became an SS-member named Uelzhofer. He was also reported to have been beating prisoners he had caught while stealing. According to Uelzhofer, there was at least one other commanding officer, but no details are known.

The prisoners from the Dachau concentration camp brought their own food with them. However, after heavy work, they were given an  extra allowances by the firm of Franz Nützl.
 How and under what circumstances the prisoners working at the nursery had been lodged is not known.
Until January 1943 they still slept at the KZ-Dachau. A civilian employee remembers that because of a quarantine at the main camp, the work of the prisoners in the nursery was interrupted for two months. Hans Hornung reported that the prisoners were placed into the sub-camp Munich-Allach at the instigation of Franz Nützl after a period of four years. When the detainee commando was actually accommodated  into the sub-camp is  no longer possible to verify.

During September 1944 about 92 prisoners from all German occupied countries of Europe were working for Nützl. Kapo at that time was the Viennese inmate Rohner until September 1944. When the rubble clearing team from Dachau came after the destruction to the nursery utility, Rohmer was on vacation. Karl Poltschek took over his post. After his return, Rohner remained in command for only a short time. His successor was Hans Schneider, who oversaw the working commando as Kapo until January 1945.

From January 1943 the German prisoner Hans Hornung worked in the bookkeeping department. Nützl wanted to use him as a business manager, and he therefore tried to get the Administration of the KZ-Dachau for the release of Hornung. The latter was freed on 7 June 1944 with the obligation of duty of service (Dienstverpflichtung) only at the company of Nüztl. With this, Franz Nützl admittedly had freed Hans Hornung from the Concentration Camp, but at the same time forced him into a personal relationship dependency. Several times, Franz Nützl threatened Hans Hornung to return him to the Concentration Camp-. Nevertheless, Hornung tried to improve the situation of the detainees of the working commando Nütgzl, by repeatedly advocating the award of bonuses to the prisoners which was due to them.
[Mrs Hornung was God-Mother to my wife October 1933 and was named after her: 'Anne-Marie.]

Nothing is known of inmate killings from the work detail ''Nützl', during an air attack some prisoners were injured, and seven died in September 1944. The injured people were taken to the Revier at Camp Dachau.

About two days before the invasion of the American troops into Munich, Franz Nützl fled. How long the prisoners stayed on and had worked in the nursery and what happened to them is not known. Only Hans Hornung remained active in the company, and continued the business under American occupation, until Franz Nützl returned out of his hiding place after two weeks.
To hide profits out of his business with the SS, Franz Nützl, after the war  legally transferred a large part of his business over to his wife, and sold his workshops and vehicles to his nephew Franz Auracher. De facto, he remained head of the company.
In 1949, Franz Nützl was assigned to the group of followers by the Supreme Court Munich, and he had to pay a penalty of DM 100 [which was the lowest penalty the Court could impose,sic] and the costs of the proceedings of DM 59,000. An investigation of the Central Office in Ludwigsburg was discontinued in 1974, since there were no indications for a crime in this sub-camp being committed. The former commandant Bruno Jakusch was condemned in 1947 within the framework of the Dachauer processes to two years and six months 

Author German Text: Sabine Schalm

Der Ort des Terrors, Pages 407-
Vol 2 C.H.Beck, München 2005
Translated from German by:
 Stolpmann,Herbert Karl Walter
 von Waldeck                                                          Continued under Part 15


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