Rudolf Hess, the Führer's deputy, flew to Scotland on 10th Nay 1941 to negotiate peace. Unfortunately the Germa NS hierarchy dd not understand nor did they have little knowledge of the proceedings of a Parliamenty System in a Democracy.
His flight was considered treachery by the National Socialist government, which declared Hess mentally deranged.
Shortly after the visit of the Soviet foreign minister Molotov, in November 1941 (This is when Molotov through a book at Hitler while they had to continue their discussions with Ribbentrop in an Air Raid Shelter.)
Hitler was at Obersalzberg for a few days. Hess was also staying at hiss house at the Obersalzberg and was invited for dinner at that evening to join him.
Towards the end of the meal a courier arrived and handed a despatch to Reich Press Chief Otto Dietrich. He run his eyes over it quickly and then passed it to Hitler, who read it standing up and the exclaimed: 'My God, what can I supposed to do? I can't fly over and beg on my knees'.
The talk subsequently increased concerning a meeting in Portugal between the military attache Enno Enil von Rintelen , who was called 'Hitler's Postman' and his Swedish colleague Graf Bermadotte. The whole thing was not revealed at that time, only later it came to the surface, that secret negotiation had taken place with the British. However, Hess answering Hitler's earlier observation, not to him but to his adjutant, uttered something like:'Perhaps he can't. But I can!'
Part of the fuselage of Hess's Bf 110. Imperial War Museum (2008
Hess's servant Sepp Platzer after his imprisonment in Russia revealed, what happened next during the evening and how events panned out. Sepp drove back to his house with Hess, and in the car and repeated the sentence: 'Hitler cannot, but I can!' Then he let sepp into his plan . He decided to fly to Britain on his own account. Nobody else was to know - at first, not even his own adjutants.
First of all Sepp had to obtain two British history books. Above all, however, Hess had to have knowledge about the flight safety zones, especially the code words, which were changed daily, so as to find the 'dead zones' and avoid coming under friendly flack fires. Sepp mentioned to to Flugkaputän Baur the map with the safety zones marked out on it. At first Baur declined the request. Sepp insisted . 'You know my boss, he wants to be informed about everything .' Baur then obtained a copy from Göring, commander-in-chief of the Luftwaffe, on the pretext that the map was needed by his deputy, Hitler's second pilot, Georg Betz.
After this had been achieved, Hess needed a place to which he could withdraw and prepare for his operation. He got his servant to ask a Gauleiter to put a farmstead in Austria at his disposal. At at that point, Hess had never made a parachute jump. Sepp got him some special beginners boots' boots and bandages used by paratroopers at the start of their training. Hess stuck the map on the wall of his hut in the Austrian mountains and studied it lying in bed. Sepp had seen that for himself.
Hess incessantly flew an Me 110 fighter bomber. He even made some courier flights. On the the day he met Hitler in Berlin, Hitler asks him in surprise: 'What are you doing here'? Hess requested to familiarize himself officially with courier flights, but Hitler refused, and forbade Hess as well as Göring as his deputy - Hess as deputy Part Chairman, Göring as Reich Chancellor - from flying together. Obviously neither took any notice.
In February 1941, Hess took off on his first 'British Flight' attempt. Sepp advised him. that at all costs, he must wear a uniform.
As a civilian the British would put him before a firing squad , they were very strict about it.. Shortly before getting into the Messerscmitt aircraft. Hes gave to his adjutant Karl-Heinz Pintsch and Alfred Leitgen an envelope, with strict instructions that it was only to be opened if he did not return within twenty minutes. Hess had hardly taken off to the aircraft when the two adjutants became anxious and tore the envelope open. Inside was another envelope, addressed to Hitler. It was marked 'Very Urgent' Before the adjutants could decide what to do next, Hes came back after only seven minutes.
He had in fact taken off, but landed again immediately. He spoke briefly with the flight engineer Neumeier, who - also under the greatest secrecy regarding the mission - had placed explosives and additional fuel tanks in the aircraft and they got back in the car with Sepp, the adjutants and the driver Rudi, and drove back to Munich. Nobody really knows if there was actually a problem with the aircraft or if Hess had lost courage. Sepp and others thought the latter, because Hess had trained incessantly on the plane, and defect at this stage was unlikely.
The farmer that captured Rudolf Hess in Scotland
The adjutants finally found their tongues and admitted to Hess that the had opened the letter prematurely. They therefore knew that their boss was planning something that made it urgent for them to inform Hitler of the fact , once Hess had flown off. At first Hess was silent. Sepp tried to clarify the situation and give his superior the opportunity to decide nohow to proceed. As they drove through a stretch of woodland, Sepp therefore suggested that Hess might like to take a walk since he liked walking through woods so much. 'Platzer thinks I should walk a little -good, I'll will walk!'
Hess told Rudi to stop the car, and he spent half an hour walking around. Back in the limousine , he then addressed the adjutants. They knew now something that they had to keep secret under all circumstances. The events they had just been witness had never taken place. Everybody held firm to that so far. In February 1941, Hess made another attempt, but abandoned it . Without having taken off this time . It would be May before the third attempt was made, and this time he went
After Hitler had addressed the Reichstag at the beginning of May 1941. he returned to the Berghof. At that time there now occured the Flight to Britain by Hess, for which he had been preparing so long. On the evening of 10th May 1941, his plane left the runway at the Messerschmitt Works, at Augsburg. This time everything on board the aircraft the ME 110 was in order, and probably he had worked up enough the necessary courage. The twenty minutes deadline, during which period he had told his adjutants to stand by and wait before they did anything else, passed without any sign of his returning. Karl-Heinz Pintsch - as arranged - presented himself at the Berghof next morning to hand the prepared letter to Hitler.
Hitler was outraged! 'Hess? Hess? Hess of all people did that? Hess of of all people? Why did he do this to me? Hitler did not tire of repeating himself. For the next three days, 11th- 13th May, Hitler absented himself from the military situation conferences, and confined himself to his room on the first floor. The Generals came to the situation conference and withdrew without being able to report anything. Even Goebbels was only received upstairs in Hitler's room, when he arrived on the 12th May.
The official line later was that Hess had acted as the result of mental derangement. A communique to that effect was worked on with Dietrich. Hess wanted to see the Duke of Hamilton in order to conduct his own private peace talk with the British. The Duke was apparently close to Churchill
The question was: Had Hess really acted off his own bat?
#Hitler would have needed to be a good actor to fake the indignation and upset he had displayed when reading Hess's letter. At any rate in November 1940, there must have been complete accord between Hess and Hitler at least with regard to the aim of his undertaking.
The Party :leadership had to be passed to somebody else, and Hitler appointed then Martin Bormann as chief of the Party Chancellery. In this, Hitler chose the wrong man. The general feeling among staff was, Goebbels in - Bormann out!
At Bormann's insistence, everybody who had knowledge of Hess;s flight to Britain was arrested and taken to Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp. This included Hess's two adjutants, the mechanic and also Sepp Platzer Afterwards, Sepp served at he front and, and was captured as a POW by the Russians.
After the uproar caused by Hess, towards the end of May
No domestic staff at that time had any inkling that the attack on Russia was imminent.
Hess was killed by British Secret Agents on 17 August 1987 at the age of 93. most likely by asphyxiation in Spandau Prison. Although Hess was frail according to his daily orderly, a German speaking Indian male, stated that a struggle had taken place in Hess's room, with the furniture re-arranged and not the way he had left it the night before..
Spandau Prison was demolished and replaced by a Super-Market.
Source: Discussion with 2007 -Body Guard to Hitler - member of the 'Leibstanarte Adolf Hitler'
The classified documents higly sensitive inquiry into the claims that the elderly Nazi was killed on Brotishorfers to preserve wartime secrets, which Hess had.
Picture taken during Nuremberg trials
Scotland Yard was given the names of British agents who allegedly murdered the Nazi Rudolf Hess in the infamous Spandau Prison but was advised by prosecutors not to pursue its investigations, according to a newly-released police report.
Written two years after Hess’s death in 1987, the classified document outlines a highly-sensitive inquiry into the claims of a British surgeon who had once treated Adolf Hitler’s deputy that, rather than taking his own life, the elderly Nazi was killed on British orders to preserve wartime secrets.
Released under the Freedom of Information Act, the partially-redacted report by Detective Chief Superintendent Howard Jones revealed that the surgeon - Hugh Thomas - had supplied him with the names of two suspects provided by a “government employee” responsible for training secret agents.
Withheld for nearly 25 years, the report has been released by the Yard’s counter-terrorism command following consultation with “other Government and foreign government departments”.
Rudolf Hess as prisoner at Spandau
The death of Hess in Berlin at the age of 93 after he apparently hung himself with a wire flex in a summer house in the grounds of Spandau has long been controversial with claims that he was too infirm to commit suicide and a farewell note to his family had in fact been written 20 years earlier.
The Yard was called in in 1989 after Mr Thomas, an eminent former military surgeon previously based in Spandau, claimed in a book that “Hess” was in fact an impostor sent by the Nazis to Britain in 1941 and his murder was carried out by two British assassins disguised as American serviceman.
In his subsequent 11-page report, Mr Jones said the surgeon had “confidentially imparted” the names of two alleged suspects passed to him by an informant who was a former member of the SAS and had since taken on a role “training people for undercover or spying operations”.
Prior to his death, speculation had been growing that Hess might be released because a long-standing veto by the Soviet Union, which for decades had insisted on a severe regime for Hess, including forcing him to wash his hands in toilet bowl, might be reversed by Mikhail Gorbachev.
Mr Jones wrote: “[Mr Thomas] had received information that two assassins had been ordered on behalf of the British Government to kill Hess in order that he should not be released and free to expose secrets concerning the plot to overthrow the Churchill government.”
The officer found there was not “much substance” to Mr Thomas’s claims of murder but suggested that efforts should be made to trace and interview the alleged killers along with other witnesses to ensure the matter could be “comprehensively adjudged” to have been fully investigated.
It is not known if the two suspects were tracked down after the report was submitted to the Crown Prosecution Service in May 1989.
Hess; grave stone which says in German 'Ich hab's gewagt' - literally means: I had a go at it!
(The stone as well as his grave has now been removed)
But within six months the investigation was declared closed after the then Director of Public of Prosecutions, Sir Allan Green QC, advised that further inquiries were not necessary.
In November 1989, Sir Nicholas Lyell, the solicitor general, told Parliament: “The inquiries carried out by Detective Chief Superintendent Jones have produced no cogent evidence to suggest that Rudolf Hess was murdered; nor, on the view of the Director of Public Prosecutions, is there any basis for further investigation.”
The unannounced arrival of Hess in Britain was one of the strangest incidents of the Second World War and remains the subject of extensive debate about its motivation, including whether it was an ill-judged attempt to unseat Winston Churchill by enlisting aristocrats with Nazi sympathies.
After flying solo to Scotland in 1941, Hitler’s deputy fuhrer parachuted to the ground and, after being taken into custody at pitchfork-point by an astonished ploughman, declared his intention to negotiate a peace with Britain to form an alliance against Stalin’s Soviet Union.
Hess was sentenced to life imprisonment as a war criminal at the Nuremberg Trials and incarcerated in Spandau along with other prominent Nazis including Albert Speer. From 1966 onwards, Hitler’s deputy - whose Allied guards were required to only address him as Prisoner Seven - was the sole inmate in the 600-cell prison.
Further doubt was claimed to have been cast last year on the circumstances of Hess’s suicide when photographs emerged of the summer house where he died, showing the short distance - some 5ft - between the cord from which he was found hanging and the floor.
His son, Wolf, had previously insisted that the height was insufficient for his father, crippled by arthritis, to hang himself and added to post mortem examination evidence suggesting a full noose had been placed around his neck.
In his report, Mr Jones dismissed such concerns, saying expert advice showed Hess’s injuries were consistent with an “unusual hanging situation”
. The grave of Rudolf Hess has been removed from the Wunsiedel cemetery because the small Bavarian town had become a pilgrimage site for neo-Nazis. Photograph: Lennart Preiss/AP
In 1979, Dr. Hugh Thomas, a British physician, came out with a highly controversial book that made the startling claim that Nazi Germany’s Deputy Führer, Rudolf Hess, did not commit suicide in Berlin’s Spandau Prison in 1987, but actually died in 1941, and that the man who died in prison was, in reality, Hess’s double!